What is Pathology - What are the symptoms of activated leukocytes?
In various ways, activated leukocytes differ from inactive leukocytes:
- Adhesion molecule expression: Selectins and integrins are expressed in higher numbers on the cell surface and have a stronger affinity for liquids.
-Changes in the cytoskeleton: The cell shape changes from round to flattened or amoeboid as microtubules and microfilaments polymerize and redistribute. Leukocytes produce pseudopods and begin actively migrating toward stimuli. The development of phagocytic vacuoles is also aided by cytoskeletal alterations.
- Degranulation: The contents of cytoplasmic granules are discharged into extracellular areas or phagocytic vacuoles. These enzymes aid in the digesting of microorganisms within the phagocytic vacuoles. Enzymes released from the granules into the extracellular space interact with ECM components and basement membranes, allowing leukocytes to enter the tissues.
-Oxidative burst: Activated leukocytes produce free oxygen radicals, which are necessary for germs to die.
- Protein synthesis: Proteins are produced to replace those expelled during degranulation as well as those depleted by increasing cellular activity.
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