What is Pathology - What role does calcium play in acute cell injury?
An increase in the concentration of free calcium ions in the hyaloplasm(cytosol) is associated with cell injury . These calcium ions come from the extracellular fluid, the mitochondrial compartment, and the RER's cisterns. By activating multiple enzymes, ionised calcium enhances the
negative effects of hypoxia:
a)Lytic ATPase: Degrades ATP, reducing energy storage even more.
b) Phospholipases: These enzymes degrade the function of plasma or mitochondrial membranes by removing phospholipids.
c)Proteases: These enzymes break down proteins in the cell membrane or cytoskeleton. &
d) Endonucleases: Endonucleases are enzymes that operate on RNA and DNA.
All of these alterations are initially reversible, but they can lead to irreversible cell harm if they are continued or increased.
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