What is ENT - What are the urgently treatable consequences of acute otitis media?
(6) Abducens nerve paresis due to petrous apex involvement or "Gradenigo's syndrome," which is a triad of suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy. (1) Mastoiditis with radiologic evidence of coalescence (loss of bony septae within the mastoid); (2) formation of subperiosteal or intracranial ab
What is ENT - . What are the symptoms of acute epiglottitis and why is it urgent?
Epiglottitis is an inflammation of the epiglottis, usually brought on by an infectious cause that quickly closes the airway. It is known as supraglottitis when the inflammation affects nearby structures like the aryepiglottic folds and arytenoid soft tissues. Considering that mortality rates might approach 20%, prompt identification and treatment are crucial. Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine, the incidence has dramatically decreased. Among the past, it was typically an illness of children, but it is increasingly more prevalent in adults. The most prevalent bacteria found are beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, H. influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. According to current thinking, George Washington most certainly passed away from severe bacterial epiglottitis.
.What is ENT - Do you need imaging if you think there might be a peritonsillar abscess?
To diagnose a peritonsillar abscess, imaging is not necessary. Imaging can be useful in making the diagnosis if an abscess in the parapharyngeal or retropharyngeal space is suspected.
What is ENT - What imaging technique is most effective for determining the cerebellopontine angle? The most effective method for assessing tumors and lesions of the cerebellopontine angle is MRI due to its higher capacity to display soft tissue contrast. The internal auditory canals are typically imaged using contrast.
What is ENT - What kind of imaging should be used for the temporal bone?
Due to its capacity to display bony detail, a CT scan without contrast is the ideal method for evaluating cortical bone and soft tissue abnormalities.
.What is ENT - What vocal fold layers make up the cover? what makes up the ligament?
The epithelium and superficial lamina propria combine to produce the cover. The vocal ligament is made up of the deep and intermediate lamina propria.
What is ENT-Explain the relationship between the branchial arch derivatives and the larynx.
The stylopharyngeus muscle, which lifts the larynx, is a function of the third branchial arch. The superior laryngeal nerve, the cricothyroid muscle, the thyroid and cuneiform cartilage, and other tissues are all influenced by the fourth branchial arch. The cricoid, arytenoid, and corniculate cartilages, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and all of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles are all derived from the fifth and sixth branchial arches (except the cricothyroid).
What is ENT - Describe how the derivatives of the branchial arch connect to the ear.
Meckel's cartilage, which is made up of the malleus head and neck, incus body and short process, and anterior malleal ligament, is mostly derived from the first branchial arch. It also affects the first three hillocks of His and the tensor tympani. The manubrium of the malleus, the long process and lenticular process of the incus, as well as the majority of the stapes, are all part of Reichert's cartilage, which is derived from the second branchial arch. Additionally, it affects His final three hillocks. The eustachian tube, mastoid air cells, and the inner layer of the tympanic membrane are all derived from the first branchial pouch. The external auditory canal and tympanic membrane's outer layer are both influenced by the first branchial cleft.
What is Emergency Medicine - What bodily parts sustain injuries the most frequently during combat? • 4%–24% for the head and neck • Thoracic wounds: 4% to 15% • 2%–20% of injuries are abdominal. • Injury to an extremity: 50% to 75% 33. A glance into the future • In military combat regions, the use of blood products as the preferred fluid when treating trauma has long been accepted. Logistics appear to limit use in the prehospital civilian situation, but it is being investigated. • The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to lessen the requirement for blood transfusions after surgery by preventing clot breakup. It is still used off-label in prehospital and combat contexts even though the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet given it official approval. The invasive treatment known as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) involves inserting an occlusive balloon into the aorta via the femoral artery. Until surgical control can be achieved, the objective is to stop noncompressible bleeding. The effectiveness of the intervention is still being researched. Given the procedure's intricacy, its usefulness in a tactical setting is in doubt.
What is Emergency Medicine - What is the leading reason for combat fatalities?
On the battlefield, over 90% of avoidable deaths are caused by uncontrolled bleeding. Exsanguinating hemorrhage accounts for close to 50% of all battle fatalities. Only a trauma center can treat large-vessel injuries in noncompressible regions like the thorax and abdomen. Hemorrhage from compressible sites, such as junctional and extremities injuries, is the main cause of avoidable deaths. In the military setting, increased emphasis on tourniquet and hemostatic use has greatly reduced unnecessary deaths and is beginning to have an effect on the civilian EMS community.
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