Aspergillosis is caused by aspergillus species. Aspergillus can be detected via aspergillus antigen in the serum using the enzyme immunoassay. Other technique may include direct microscopic examination which may reveal the present of septate hyphae in specimen from tissue biopsy.
Aspergillosis is transmitted via inhalation of the aerosolized spores/ conidia which present in the soil or due to exposure to dust.
Inhaled aerosolized spores/ conidia will germinates in the alveoli of the lung to produce angioinvasive filamentous hyphae.
Patient who is currently on corticosteroids or cytotoxic therapy are easily predisposed to aspergillosis. Protracted neutropenia is the common risk factor in aspergillosis development.
Aspergillus may causes aspergillomas which is a fungal balls / mass of hyphae in the old tuberculous cavity. Patient typically present with hemoptysis. In immunocompromised patient, aspergillus may lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis which present with elevation of IgE antibodies and eosinophilia as well as asthma. Besides that patient may also suffer from fungal sinusitis.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis may also present which may disseminated to organs mostly in patient with hematological malignancies ( common causes of death), patient with immunosuppressive therapy and organ transplant and bone marrow recipients.
The treatment may include removal of the fungus ball/ aspergilloma in the old cavity as well as therapeutic approach with itraconazole, caspofungin, voriconazole and amphotericin B.
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