Botulism is caused by Clostridium botulism. There are two forms of botulism such as food borne botulism and infant botulism.
Clostridium botulism is detected using anerobic culture of the food or using the mouse bioassay for toxin in the serum or food. Clostridium botulism is an anerobic gram positive rod with spores.
The common symptoms and signs of botulism are flaccid paralysis of the voluntary muscle and respiratory muscle. The common mode of transmission is based on the spores.
The spores ( e.g from vegetables and soils) may survive improper canning. It will germinate in the can and produce toxin.
The common toxins are types A,B and E toxins. The toxin is a form of protease which lead to degradation of the protein / enzyme that is important for the release of the acetylcholine.
Infant botulism may lead to sudden infant death syndrome. Infant botulism is transmitted through the honey which is contaminated. Ingestion of spores or the organism ( clostridium
botulism) may lead to production of the toxin in the gut.
Foodborne botulism may occur due to preformed toxin in the ingested food.
The prevention of botulism may include not feeding honey to infant, adequte food preparation and avoided any defective contaminated canned food.
The treatment of botulism may include trivalent antitoxin and artificial paralysis.
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