Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides immitis. Coccidioides immitis is detected as spherules via direct examination of tissue or sputum in a potassium hydroxide preparation. Eosinophilia is a useful laboratory marker for coccidioidomycosis.
Skin test reactivity to fungal extracts can also be used. Acute infection of coccidioidomycosis may be identified by the responses of the Coccidioides immitis specific IgM.
Coccidioides immitis may be transmitted via inhalation of aerosolized arthroconidia from contaminated soil. Inhaled arthroconidia is inhaled and germinating in the lung. This will form the spherules which is filled with endospores. The outer wall of the spherules and protease are the common virulence factors of coccidioides immitis.
Patient may appear asymptomatic or develop pulmonary disorders. Coccidioidomycosis may disseminated and lead to extrapulmonary condition such as meningitis or involvement of the skin and bone.
The risk factors of coccidioidomycosis may include third trimester pregnant women and immunocompromised patient as well as Asians and blacks.
The common treatment of coccidioidomycosis may include itraconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B.
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