Croup is also known as laryngotracheobronchitis. Croup may present with symptoms and signs such as barking cough, fever, hoarseness and inspiratory stridor.
The common causes of croup may include parainfluenza virus type 1 and parainfluenza type 2. There are four types of parainfluenza virus serotypes. Parainfluenza virus type 1, 2, 3 and 4. Types 1 and 2 causes croup. Types 3 parainfluenza virus effect the children and presented with pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
Type 4 parainfluenza virus is associated with mild case of upper respiratory illness.
The common mode of transmission is respiratory droplets. Parainfluenza virus may infects and damage the respiratory epithelial cells. There will be multinucleated giant cells.
Parainfluenza virus is detected by detecting the present of parainfluenza virus specific antibodies and due to culture study. Nasal aspirates may be useful in detecting the present of viral antigens.
The common virulence factor for parainfluenza virus may include viral fusion protein.
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