Cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic pathogen mostly affecting patient with HIV / AIDS or organ transplant recipient. Cytomegalovirus in this cases may present with colitis, encephalitis and retinitis as well as graft failure in transplant recipient.
Cytomegalovirus may present with mononucleosis like syndrome. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection may also occur which presented with growth retardation, petechiae, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and neurological disturbance.
There are a few laboratory investigations that can be performed to identify cytomegalovirus infection such as PCR and CMV - specific antibody.
Cytomegalovirus may be transmitted via direct contact of blood, semen, breast milk, saliva and cervical secretions. Cytomegalovirus is initiated with infection of the oropharynx which later spread to the lymphatic tissue and affecting organs such as lung, kidney, spleen and livers.
Cytomegalovirus will remain latent in the mononuclear cells. Cytomegalovirus will only be activated in cases of immunosuppressed patients ( organ transplant recipient, HIV / AIDS patient).
The treatment of cytomegalovirus infection may focus on ganciclovir or foscarnet in cases of ganciclovir resistant infection. Other alternatives include the prodrug valaganciclovir.
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