Haemophilus influenzae infection
Haemophilus influenzae is gram negative rod. There are 6 serotypes of haemophilus influenzae which include serotypes a, b,c, d, e and f which are based on the polysaccharide capsules.
Immunological latex agglutination test is useful in detecting haemophilus influenzae type b infection in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Haemophilus influenza generally may lead to meningitis (may lead to mental retardation and loss of hearing due to neurological complication in children), pneumonia, sinusitis, pharyngitis, epiglottitis, cellulitis, conjunctivitis, and septic arthritis.
The virulence factors of haemophilus influenzae may include endotoxin, antiphagocytic capsule, IgA protease and attachment pili.
Haemophilus influenzae may require X and V factors for growth ( mostly in chocolate agar).
The common mode of transmission is via respiratory secretions ( contains encapsulated serotypes).
Vaccination with conjugated purified capsular polysaccharide is considered as a preventive measures. Chemoprophylaxis is considered for exposed people and antibiotic given to the patient may include cephalosporins and ampicillin.
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