Histoplasmosis is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma capsulatum may be detected via Histoplasma capsulatum specific polysaccharide antigen identification via enzyme immunoassay in urine and blood sample of the patient.
Histoplasma capsulatum may be transmitted via inhalation of microconidia / aerosolized spores in soil mostly contaminated with starlings / bird dropping or bat dropping.
The spores is inhaled and multiply intracellularly as yeast forms which induced an immune response that lead to localized granuloma. The cells of the reticuloendothelial system will be invaded. Histoplasma capsulatum may increase in the lysosomal pH which lead to inactivation of the degradation enzyme that inhibit phagolysosomal killing.
Immunocompromised patient is predisposed to chronic pulmonary condition.Patient need to be treated with itraconazole and amphotericin B for histoplasmosis.
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