Leptospirosis is caused by leptospira interrogans. Leptospira interrogans can be detected via serological diagnosis.
Leptospira interrogans is a gram negative spirochetes. It can be detected via cultured from cerebrospinal fluid and blood ( within narrow window of infection).
The common mode of transmission is via exposure to the contaminated soil and contaminated water from the urine of the infected animal ( rodents, cattle, dogs and wild animals which act as reservoirs.
Leptospirosis is a biphasic illness. Leptospirosis consist of two phase, first phase include flu like fever, myalgia and chills.
The second phase consists of aseptic meningitis and iritis.
In serious cases, patient may present with Weil’s disease. Weil’s disease may lead to extensive vascular damage. These may lead to renal failure and hepatic failure.
Spirochetes may enter the bloodstream via the abrasion of the mucus membrane and the skin. Later the spirochetes will multiply and spread to organs and tissues.
The treatment of leptospirosis may include antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. Prophylactic doxycycline is given for high risk person.
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