Measles is caused by measles virus. measles virus will infects the respiratory cells. Measles virus later will multiple in the lymph nodes. Measles virus then disseminated to the mucosa and skin.
Measles virus is a form of paramyxovirus with a single serotypes. Measles virus may present with fever,conjunctivitis, cough and coryza. Koplik spots or white spot on inflamed buccal mucosa may appear in the cheek.
This is follow later by maculopapular rash which occur due to cell mediated immune attack on the vascular endothelial cells which is infected by virus in the skin. The maculopapular rash present on the head, trunk and extremities.
Patient is predisposed to secondary infection due to depression of the immune response by infection of the T cells and B cells. The complication of measles may include subacute sclerosing pan encephalitis,otitis media, encephalitis and virus induced giant cell pneumonia.
Measles virus is transmitted via respiratory droplets. The common laboratory technique may include serology analysis of the virus specific antibody of the measles. Measles is prevented by administrating live attenuated measles virus vaccine with mumps vaccine and rubella vaccine.
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