Polio or poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus. Poliovirus will infect the gastrointestinal tract and pharynx and later spread to the lymph nodes and finally into the central nervous system.
There will be an invasion of the central nervous system which later lead to destruction and killing of the motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. This may lead to paralysis.
Poliovirus is transmitted via fecal oral routes. The laboratory investigations require to identify poliovirus may include RT- PCR, poliovirus specific antibody and culture.
Polio may be asymptomatic. Poliomyelitis which present with symptoms and sign such as fever, sore throat, headache and nausea without neurological disturbance is known as abortive poliomyelitis.
There are also non paralytic poliomyelitis and paralytic poliomyelitis. Paralytic poliomyelitis may present with asymmetrical flaccid paralysis while non paralytic poliomyelitis may present with aseptic meningitis ( fever, stiff neck and headache).
Patient may suffer from post polio syndrome which may include symptoms such as muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, muscle pain and fatigue. Post polio syndrome may appear 30 years later after acute polio infection.
Polio can be prevented either by killed vaccine or live attenuated vaccine.
Kembara's Health Solutions
Discovering the world of health and medicine.