Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a demyelinating disease ( AIDS defining illness) which affect the brain. Patient may complain with vision and speech abnormalities and alteration of the mental function.Patient may fall into coma and death.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is commonly affecting HIV/ AIDS patient ( immunosuppressive disease).
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by JC virus which is a human polyomavirus. The present of JC virus infection is confirmed with polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid or from the biopsy of the brain tissue of the patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
The common mode of transmission is via respiratory droplets.
JC virus will be spread and establish a latent infection in lungs, kidney and lymphoid organs. The latent infection will be activated in immunocompromised patient. The activation of JC virus will lead to the spread of infection to the brain and lead to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
JC virus will attach to the serotonin receptor on oligodendrocytes (myelin producing cells) which lead to lytic infection.
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