Roseola is also known as exanthem subitum. Exanthem subitum is caused by human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7. Human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 can be detected via serological assay and polymerase chain reaction.
Human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 are transmitted via saliva and acquired during infancy.
The common symptoms and signs of roseola may begin with fever and rash spreading from the trunk into the extremities. Human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 may infect and lead to latent infection of the T lymphocytes.
The latent infection may be reactivated in immunocompromised patient and the presenting symptoms and signs may include rejection of graft ( transplant recipient), hepatitis, pneumonitis and encephalitis.
Human herpesvirus 6 may act as a cofactor for the pathogenesis of AIDS. The severe cases of roseola may be presented as febrile seizures.
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