Rubella is caused by rubella virus. Rubella virus infection is confirmed by the present of rubella specific IgM antibody and rubella specific IgG antibody.
Rubella virus can be transmitted via respiratory droplets ( postnatal) and transplacental transmission from mother to fetus ( congenital rubella syndrome).
Congenital rubella syndrome may occur during the first trimester of pregnancy or throughout pregnancy.
Congenital rubella syndrome in children is presented with cataract, deafness, mental retardation and cardiac anomalies.
Rubella virus may also affect adults and present with fever, maculopapular rash and lymphadenopathy.
Postnatal rubella is presented with arthritis and arthralgia. Postnatal rubella is caused by the rubella virus which enter the respiratory tract and spread as well as disseminated to the lymph nodes, spleen, skin, joints, kidney and respiratory tract.
Rubella virus will infect the placenta and finally organ in the fetus in congenital rubella syndrome.
The treatment may include the live attenuated rubella virus vaccine which is given in a combination of measles,mumps and rubella vaccine ( MMR).
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