Trypanosomiasis is caused by trypanosoma cruzi. Trypanosoma cruzi can be divided into amastigote ( unflagellated forms ) and trypomastigote ( flagellated froms).
The amastigote forms can be seen from the biopsy of the tissue while trypomastigote can only be detected from the blood film.
The vector for transmission of trypanosoma cruzi is a reduviid bug / kissing bug. After entering the host, trypomastigote will spread to the blood system and infect organs such as heart and muscles. Glial cells are also affected. Trypomastigote will convert into amastigote and finally kills the cells.
Trypanosomiasis may present with symptoms and such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, myalgia, chills and lymphadenopathy. The complications may include megacolon, myocaridits and meningoencephalitis.
Changas disease is also known as American trypanosomiasis which present with erythematous chagoma on face and aorund the eyes based on the side of insect bites.
Romana’s sign may present due to trypanosomiasis infection around the eyes and may present with swelling of the eyes, conjunctivitis and local lymphadenopathy.
The treatment may include benznidazole and nifurtimox.
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