What is Pathology - How does apoptosis begin?
Apoptosis can be triggered in a variety of ways. The following are the two most important routes:
Extrinsic route: This pathway is triggered by the activation of death receptors on the cell membrane's surface. Proteins like tumour necrosis factor or Fas ligand act as ligands for these receptors.
Intrinsic mitochondrial pathway: This mechanism is started by increased mitochondrial permeability, which releases proapoptotic chemicals like cytochrome, which act on the initiator caspases, similar to the extrinsic pathway.
Apoptosis can be triggered by a variety of factors, including radiation, medications, hormones, and immunological responses (e.g., cytotoxic T lymphocytes). Apoptosis can also be caused by the removal of hormones and growth factors that are necessary for the cell's survival. Castration, for example, is accompanied by a drop in testosterone levels in the blood, which causes prostatic cells to die.
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