What is Pathology - Pleural Effusion
The visceral and parietal lining of the outer lungs makes up the pleural area in terms of pathophysiology. In this area, there is a vacuum or negative atmosphere. The space loses its negative pressure and expands into a space that presses on the lung in that cavity if the lining develops damage or disease, or experiences oncotic pressure changes (lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis [TB], lung abscess, congestive heart failure, ascites, chronic renal disease, chest trauma).
Evaluation and Diagnostic Results
• Cough, dyspnea, reduced breath sounds over the affected region, asymmetric chest expansion, and the presence of pleural friction rub on inspiration.
• A thoracentesis and cytology to determine the cause of the effusion; a chest x-ray; a complete blood count (CBC) with differential indicating an increase in white blood count (WBC) (infection); and a client history.
• Respiratory distress; • Mediastinal shift with strain on unaffected lung.
medical attention and surgical procedure
• Chest tube insertion or thoracentesis.
• Steroids, painkillers, and antibiotics.
• The oncologist evaluates cancer-causing pleural effusions to decide the best course of action.
• Pleurodesis, in which talc is used to create a scar in the pleural cavity to stop further effusion.
• Shortness of breath (SOB) should be reported right away, particularly if a chronic lung condition has been identified.
• For clients who are at elevated risk, influenza and pneumonia vaccinations are advised.
• Splinting the chest for effective coughing and infection control are essential.
After thoracentesis, carefully check your blood pressure (BP) because the removal of fluid reduces your overall blood volume.
• Put the client in the high-Fowler posture, give medication before removing the chest tube, and restrict activities.
• Keep an eye out for SOB and low oximetry.
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