What is Surgery – SCLC cancer
DEFINITION OF LUNG CANCER Lung cancer is a primary malignant neoplasm of the lung. WHO classification of primary malignant neoplasm( bronchocarcinoma) are Small cell (20%) and non-small cell (80%) such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, and adenosquamous carcinoma.
AETIOLOGY Primary lung tumor : Smoking (both active and passive) and asbestos exposure are believed to trigger genetic alterations that lead to neoplastic transformation. Tumors most commonly occur in the main or lobar bronchi , while adenocarcinomas are more common in the periphery. Secondary tumours: Lung metastasis is a regular occurrence.
Tobacco use, occupational exposures (polycyclic hydrocarbons, asbestos, nickel, chromium, cadmium, radon), and pollution in the environment.
The most prevalent deadly malignancy in the West (18% of cancer mortality worldwide), with 35,000 fatalities per year (UK), and three times more common in men (but not in women).
With a radiographic anomaly, it may be asymptomatic (5 percent ). Symptoms of primary malignancy ( such as small cell lung carcinoma (sclc): Recurrent pneumonia, cough, haemoptysis, chest discomfort Brachial plexus (Pancoast's tumour) causing pain in the shoulder or arm, left recurrent laryngeal nerve causing hoarseness and bovine cough, oesophagus (dysphagia), palpitations (arrhythmias). Weight loss, weariness, bone discomfort or fractures, and fits are all symptoms of metastatic illness or paraneoplastic conditions.
There could be no warning indications. Wheeze is monophonic and fixed. Signs of pleural effusion or lobar collapse.
Symptoms of metastasis (e.g. supraclavicular lymphadenopathy or hepatomegaly). Horner's syndrome is a condition that affects people.
CXR, sputum cytology, bronchoscopy with brushings or biopsy, CT or ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy, lymph node biopsy are all used to determine the diagnosis.
TNM staging: CT chest, CT or MRI head and abdomen, bone scan, and PET scan are used to determine tumour size, nodal involvement, and metastatic metastasis.
Mediastinoscopy or video-assisted thoracoscopy are two invasive procedures that may be used.
FBC, U&Es, Ca2+ (hypercalcaemia is prevalent), AlkPhos (bone metastases), LFT. Blood: FBC, U&Es, Ca2+ (hypercalcaemia is common), AlkPhos (bone metastases), LFT.
ABG, pulmonary function tests (FEV1 >80% anticipated to tolerate a pneumonectomy; lung resection is contraindicated if FEV1 30% projected), V/Qscan, ECG, echocardiography, and general anaesthesia assessment are all done prior to surgery.
A multidisciplinary discussion about tumour stage and the best treatment option is held. Resectibility of the tumour (stage I and II disease, selectively IIIa) and operability are important concerns (surgery is not recommended for small-cell carcinoma) (whether a patient is fit enough to undergo surgery). It's critical to have an open and honest conversation with the patient regarding the risks and benefits of the procedure, as well as the prognosis. Only about 14% of cases are considered surgical.
Anesthesia: endotracheal tube with two lumens is used to isolate the lung to be operated on from the ventilatory circuit during anaesthesia. The central line is put on the opposite side of the lung that will be operated on. The arterial line and the urine catheter have been placed. A thoracic epidural catheter is frequently used to provide effective regional analgesia.
Procedure: In the case of bronchial tumours, rigid bronchoscopy is performed after induction of anaesthesia. Prophylaxis with antibiotics is used. The ribs are gradually distracted during a thoracotomy (typically performed posterolaterally with the patient in a lateral decubitus position). The lung is mobilised, and the tumor's location and lymph nodes are examined. The bronchial tree, pulmonary artery, and vein are identified, and if necessary, a lobectomy is performed (60 percent of resections). In the right lung, a bilobectomy can be performed while the upper or lower lobes are preserved. To avoid pneumonectomy, sleeve resection is used (involves partial resection and reconstruction of bronchi). One lung is removed in a pneumonectomy (which accounts for 25% of resections). Air is drained through an anterior apical drain, and blood or fluid is drained through a posterior basal drain.
Non-operable: Survival improves with multimodality therapy, which includes radiation and chemotherapy. Docetaxel is a drug that is regularly used. Erlotinib (inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR) is a biological medication used as a second-line chemotherapeutic drug.
Palliative and end-of-life care: Includes bronchial tumour laser therapy, endobronchial stents, complication management, and pain control.
Local invasion (e.g., brachial plexus, sympathetic chain, recurrent laryngeal nerve, SVC), metastases (most commonly liver, bone, and brain), pleural effusion, pulmonary haemorrhage, lobar or lung collapse, and paraneoplastic syndromes (especially common in small-cell carcinomas, e.g., SIADH or ectopic ACTH production; squamous cell carcinomas are associated with hyper Surgery: The lesion was not surgically resectable (should be 5 percent ). Air leaks are prevalent after lobectomy and may necessitate re-operation.
Pneumonectomy: Significant physiological strain due to cardiac output passing entirely through one lung, hazards of cardiac arrhythmias, failure, or MI, atelectasis, and pneumonia, pulmonary oedema, bronchopleural fistula, haemorrhage, and pulmonary embolus.
Is dependent on the stage, however it is usually poor. Small-cell carcinoma is frequently spread when it is discovered. Overall, just 5% of people survive five years. 5-year survival after resection for early stage cancer is about 25%. The mortality rate for lobectomy is 2%, whereas the mortality rate for pneumonectomy is 8%.
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